Metal casting process begins by creating a mold, which is the ‘reverse’ shape of the part we need. The mold is made
from a refractory material, for example, sand. The metal is heated in an oven until it melts, and the molten metal is
poured into the mould cavity. The liquid takes the shape of cavity, which is the shape of the part. It is cooled until
it solidifies. Finally, the solidified metal part is removed from the mould.
A large number of metal components in designs we use every day are made by casting. The reasons for this include:
(a) Casting can produce very complex geometry parts with internal cavities and hollow sections.
(b) It can be used to make small (few hundred grams) to very large size parts (thousands of kilograms)
(c) It is economical, with very little wastage: the extra metal in each casting is re-melted and re-used
(d) Cast metal is isotropic – it has the same physical/mechanical properties along any direction.